SpEd - Assessment Tools (CTOPP-2: Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (2024)

The Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) was published in 1999 to meet the need for an assessment of reading-related phonological processing skills. Since its initial publication, the CTOPP has been popular with professionals in psychology and education. It has been used in many studies of reading and phonological processing in both typical and clinical populations. The extent of its widespread adoption and usage is evident from the results of a recent search of the PsychInfo database for research studies using the terms Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing or CTOPP. The query returned 4,287 results.

Characteristics of the CTOPP-2

All new normative data were collected in 2008 and 2009. The test was normed on 1,900 individuals ranging in age from 6 through 24 years. The demographic characteristics of the sample conform to those of the population reported in the Statistical Abstract of the United States, and are, therefore, representative of the U.S. population.

The floor effects present in the 5- and 6-year-old version of the first edition have been eliminated by the addition of easier items and the ceilings were extended by the addition of more difficult items. The results of the item additions were so successful that it now is appropriate to administer the CTOPP-2 to 4-year-olds. The lower version of the CTOPP-2 now covers the 4- to 6-year-old range. A new phonological awareness subtest called Phoneme Isolation was added.

The model of phonological processing abilities was clarified. Confirmatory factor analyses were carried out and justified the presence of rapid naming subtests on a test of phonological processing. The model for 4- to 6-year-old range was revised by adding rapid naming of digits and letters to this version, and reporting scores on both symbolic and non-symbolic rapid naming at this level.

Uses of the CTOPP-2

The CTOPP-2 has four principal uses:

CTOPP-2 Composites

Phonological Awareness Composite Score (PACS) comprises the standard scores of three subtests – Elision, Blending Words, and Sound Matching – for 4 through 6 year olds, and Elision, Blending Words, and Phoneme Isolation for 7 through 24 year olds. The PACS represents the examinee’s awareness of and access to the phonological structure of oral language.

Phonological Memory Composite Score (PMCS) comprises the standard scores of two subtests – Memory for Digits and Nonword Repetition – for all individuals. The PMCS represents the examinee’s ability to code information phonologically for temporary storage in working or short-term memory.

The Rapid Symbolic Naming Composite Score (RSNCS) comprises the standard scores of two subtests – Rapid Digit Naming and Rapid Letter Naming – for all individuals. The RSNCS measures the examinee’s ability to include efficient retrieval of phonological information from long-term or permanent memory and execute a sequence of operations quickly and repeatedly.

Rapid Non-Symbolic Naming Composite Score (RNNCS) comprises the standard scores of two subtests – Rapid Colour Naming and Rapid Object Naming and offers an alternative for young children, ages 4 through 6 year olds, not familiar with letters and numbers. The RNNCS measures the examinee’s ability to include efficient retrieval of phonological information from long-term or permanent memory and executing a sequence of operations quickly and repeatedly using objects and colours.

The Alternate Phonological Awareness Composite Score (APACS), an alternate composite for measuring phonological awareness is available for 7 through 24 year olds. It is formed by combining the scaled scores from Blending Nonwords and Segmenting Nonwords. The APACS measures the examinee’s phonological awareness exclusively with nonwords.

Scores Available

The CTOPP-2 yields six types of normative scores: age equivalents, grade equivalents, percentile ranks, subtest scaled scores, composite indexes, and developmental scores. Percentile ranks are easily understood by parents and others with whom the examiner might want to share the results. Subtest scaled scores have a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3. The composite score indexes have a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Age and grade equivalents show the relative standing of individuals’ scores. A new Rasch-based developmental score is now available for the non-speeded subtests.

Statistical Characteristics

Reliability of the CTOPP-2 subtests and composites was demonstrated by average internal consistency coefficients presented for the subtests that exceed .80 for all except Nonword Repetition with an average alpha of .77. The average internal consistency coefficients for the composites were all .85 or higher, a highly desirable level for reliability. Validity of the CTOPP-2 subtests and composites was demonstrated by correlations to measures directly related to the constructs measured by the CTOPP-2. The averaged coefficients for the subtests range from .49 (moderate) to .84 (very large); those for the composites range from .65 (large) to .76 (very large) in magnitude.

Complete CTOPP-2 Kit Includes: Examiner’s Manual, 25 Examiner Record Booklets for ages 4 through 6, 25 Examiner Record Booklets for ages 7 through 24, Picture Book, and 2 CDs, all in a sturdy storage box.

SpEd - Assessment Tools (CTOPP-2: Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (2024)


What is the purpose of the Ctopp-2 comprehensive test of phonological processing? ›

Identify individuals whose phonological abilities are significantly below their peers. Determine strengths and weaknesses in phonological processing skills. Document progress in phonological processing following intervention. Collect data for phonological processing research.

Is Ctopp a dyslexia screener? ›

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing -2 (CTOPP-2)

We find the CTOPP-2 to be very valuable in identifying underlying phonological processing skills and, thus, dyslexia. It is a standard test in our battery.

Is the Ctopp a speech or language assessment? ›

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition (CTOPP-2) is one of the most common assessment tools used by speech language pathologists to evaluate a child's phonological processing abilities, which are important prerequisites to reading fluency.

Is Ctopp a cognitive assessment? ›

Assesses general cognitive, non-verbal ability. Gives a comparison of strengths of visual, auditory and kinaesthetic working memory and executive function ability. The Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) assesses phonological awareness, phonological memory and rapid naming.

How to explain the Ctopp to parents? ›

The Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) is an instrument that can be used to measure phonological processing abilities of school aged children. This instrument employs a variety of subtests to measure several components of phonological processing.

Who can administer the Ctopp-2? ›

A degree from an accredited 4-year college or university in psychology, counseling, or a closely related field PLUS satisfactory completion of coursework in test interpretation, psychometrics and measurement theory, educational statistics, or a closely related area; OR license or certification from an agency that ...

How does phonological processing affect reading? ›

Phonological skills, which involve hearing and manipulating sounds in spoken language (e.g. phonemes, syllables) are necessary for developing strong word reading skills. Phonological skills help children understand how letters and letter patterns work to represent language in print.

Is phonological processing the same as dyslexia? ›

The problems associated with dyslexia are language-based, not visual and not related to cognitive skills or intelligence. Phonological processing problems are the principal cause of dyslexia.

What is the most accurate dyslexia test? ›

Table of Contents
  • The Speechify dyslexia assessment.
  • The comprehensive test of phonological processing.
  • The Gray Oral Reading Test.
  • Woodco*ck-Johnson IV Test.
  • Rapid Automatic Naming Tests.

Is Ctopp 2 reliable? ›

The CTOPP was found to be a very reliable measure. Generally, a reliability coefficient of . 80 or higher would be considered adequate, with values at and above . 90 to be desirable.

How to score Ctopp 2? ›

Scoring: Record correct answers as 1 and incorrect answers as 0.

What is phonological processing? ›

Phonological processing is the use of the sounds of one's language (i.e., phonemes) to process spoken and written language (Wagner & Torgesen, 1987). The broad category of phonological processing includes phonological awareness, phonological working memory, and phonological retrieval.

What is the purpose of the Ctopp-2 assessment? ›

to determine strengths and weaknesses among developed phonological processes. to document individuals' progress in phonological processing as a consequence of special intervention programs. to serve as a measurement device in research studies investigating phonological processing.

What age is the Ctopp-2 assessment for? ›

Applicable across two age levels, 4-6 and 7-24, the CTOPP-2 has five composites: Phonological Awareness Component Scores (PACS) represents awareness of and access to the phonological structure of oral language.

What is phonological memory in Ctopp? ›

The CTOPP-2 is a comprehensive instrument designed to assess phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming. People with deficits in one or more of these areas may have more difficulty reading than those who do not.

What is the purpose of a phonological assessment? ›

Assessment in phonological awareness serves essentially two purposes: to initially identify students who appear to be at risk for difficulty in acquiring beginning reading skills and to regularly monitor the progress of students who are receiving instruction in phonological awareness.

What is phonological processing and why is it important? ›

Phonological processing is the ability to manipulate and analyse the sounds of language (called phonemes). It is a key skill in learning to read and write, as it allows us to break down words into their individual sounds and then blend those sounds back together to form new words.

What does the phonological awareness test 2 measure? ›

Measures students' awareness of spoken syllables and phonemes.

What is the purpose of the phonological awareness screening test? ›

The Phonological Awareness Screening Test (PAST) assesses skills in phonemic awareness. It is one component that should be considered along with the information from the screening assessment it is being used with. The PAST is a free resource. Administration Method The PAST is administered individually by the teacher.

Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Annamae Dooley

Last Updated:

Views: 6008

Rating: 4.4 / 5 (65 voted)

Reviews: 80% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Annamae Dooley

Birthday: 2001-07-26

Address: 9687 Tambra Meadow, Bradleyhaven, TN 53219

Phone: +9316045904039

Job: Future Coordinator

Hobby: Archery, Couponing, Poi, Kite flying, Knitting, Rappelling, Baseball

Introduction: My name is Annamae Dooley, I am a witty, quaint, lovely, clever, rich, sparkling, powerful person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.